By Sri Adi Sankaracharya (and his disciples)
The Acharya is believed to have
composed the Bhajagovindam during his famous pilgrimage to Kashi (Benares).
The fourteen disciples are said to have accompanied him. The story goes
that when he was walking along the streets of Kashi, he was pained to observe an
elderly man trying hard to learn Sanskrit grammar. At his advanced age,
the remaining valuable little time of his life should have been used for
worshipping the God, instead of wasting on learning a language. This prompted
Sri Sankara to burst out this composition, a sort of rebuke to foolish way of
living. The Acharya urges the man to turn towards God and sing His glory instead
of trying to learn a language. A censure is implied when the Acharya calls
the man a fool (Moodhamathe). It may be added here that the tone of
Bhajagovindam is not at all soft, but somewhat striking, in spite of its exotic
poetic beauty and perfection of composition. This is no wonder, because
such a treatment is required to wake up man from his slumber. A milder
approach would delay the matter. The matter is urgent, as the Acharya
explains in the next verse, for, when the hour of death approaches without any
forewarning, the hard-learned verses of grammar are not going to save the poor
soul. Hence the song rightly starts without any preamble:
bhajagovindaM bhajagovindaM govindaM bhajamuuDhamate . saMpraapte sannihite kaale nahi nahi rakshati DukRiJNkaraNe .. (1)
Worship Govinda, Worship Govinda, Worship Govinda. Oh fool! Rules of Grammar will not save you at the time of your death.
mUDha jahiihi dhanaagamatRishhNaaM kuru sadbuddhiM manasi vitRishhNaam. yallabhase nijakarmopaattaM vittaM tena vinodaya chittam. .. (2)
Oh fool ! Give up your thirst to amass wealth, devote your mind to thoughts to the Real. Be content with what comes through actions already performed in the past.
naariistanabhara naabhiideshaM dRishhTvaa maagaamohaavesham. etanmaaMsaavasaadi vikaaraM manasi vichintaya vaaraM vaaram. .. (3)
Do not get drowned in delusion by going wild with passions and lust by seeing a woman's navel and chest. These are nothing but a modification of flesh. Do not fail to remember this again and again in your mind.
naliniidalagata jalamatitaralaM tadvajjiivitamatishayachapalam . viddhi vyaadhyabhimaanagrastaM lokaM shokahataM cha samastam .. (4)
The life of a man is as uncertain as rain drops trembling on a lotus leaf. Know that the whole world remains a prey to disease, ego and grief.
yaavadvittopaarjana saktaH staavannija parivaaro raktaH . pashchaajjiivati jarjara dehe vaartaaM ko.api na pRichchhati gehe .. (5)
So long as a man is fit and able to support his family, see the affection all those around him show. But no one at home cares to even have a word with him when his body totters due to old age.
yaavatpavano nivasati dehe taavatpRichchhati kushalaM gehe . gatavati vaayau dehaapaaye bhaaryaa bibhyati tasminkaaye .. (6)
When one is alive, his family members enquire kindly about his welfare. But when the soul departs from the body, even his wife runs away in fear of the corpse.
baalastaavatkriiDaasaktaH taruNastaavattaruNiisaktaH . vRiddhastaavachchintaasaktaH pare brahmaNi ko.api na saktaH .. (7)
The childhood is lost by attachment to playfulness. Youth is lost by attachment to woman. Old age passes away by thinking over many past things. But there is hardly anyone who wants to be lost in parabrahmam.
kaate kaantaa kaste putraH saMsaaro.ayamatiiva vichitraH . kasya tvaM kaH kuta aayaataH tattvaM chintaya tadiha bhraataH .. (8)
Who is your wife ? Who is your son ? Strange is this samsara. Of whom are you ? From where have you come ? Brother, ponder over these truths here.
satsaNgatve nissN^gatvaM nissaNgatve nirmohatvam.h . nirmohatve nishchalatattvaM nishcalatattve jiivanmuktiH .. (9)
From Satsangh comes non-attachment, from non-attachment comes freedom from delusion, which leads to self-settledness. From self-settledness comes Jeevan Mukti.
vayasigate kaH kaamavikaaraH shushhke niire kaH kaasaaraH . kshiiNevitte kaH parivaaraH GYaate tattve kaH saMsaaraH .. (10)
What good is lust when youth has fled ? What use is a lake which has no water ? Where are the relatives when wealth is gone ? Where is samsara when the Truth is known ?
maa kuru dhana jana yauvana garvaM harati nimeshhaatkaalaH sarvam.h . maayaamayamidamakhilaM hitvaa brahmapadaM tvaM pravisha viditvaa .. (11)
Do not boast of wealth, friends, and youth. Each one of these are destroyed within a minute. Free yourself from the illusion of the world of Maya and attain the timeless Truth.
dinayaaminyau saayaM praataH shishiravasantau punaraayaataH . kaalaH kriiDati gachchhatyaayuH tadapi na muJNcatyaashaavaayuH .. (12)
Daylight and darkness, dusk and dawn, winter and springtime come and go. Time plays and life ebbs away. But the storm of desire never leaves.
dvaadashamaJNjarikaabhirasheshhaH kathito vaiyaakaraNasyaishhaH . upadesho bhuudvidyaanipuNaiH shriimachchhankarabhagavachchharaNariH .. (12a)
This bouquet of twelve verses was imparted to a grammarian by the all-knowing Shankara, adored as the bhagavadpada.
kaate kaantaa dhana gatachintaa vaatula kiM tava naasti niyantaa . trijagati sajjanasaM gatiraikaa bhavati bhavaarNavataraNe naukaa .. (13)
Oh mad man ! Why this engrossment in thoughts of wealth ? Is there no one to guide you ? There is only one thing in three worlds that can save you from the ocean from samsara. Get into that boat of satsangha quickly. Stanza attributed to Padmapada.
jaTilo muNDii luJNchhitakeshaH kaashhaayaambarabahukRitaveshhaH . pashyannapi cana pashyati muuDhaH udaranimittaM bahukRitaveshhaH .. (14)
There are many who go with matted locks, many who have clean shaven heads, many whose hairs have been plucked out; some are clothed in saffron, yet others in various colors --- all just for a livelihood. Seeing truth revealed before them, still the foolish ones see it not. Stanza attributed to Totakacharya.
aNgaM galitaM palitaM muNDaM dashanavihiinaM jataM tuNDam. vRiddho yaati gRihiitvaa daNDaM tadapi na muJNcatyaashaapiNDam.. (15)
Strength has left the old man's body; his head has become bald, his gums toothless and leaning on crutches. Even then the attachment is strong and he clings firmly to fruitless desires. Stanza attributed to Hastamalaka.
agre vahniH pRishhThebhaanuH raatrau chubukasamarpitajaanuH . karatalabhikshastarutalavaasaH tadapi na muJNcatyaashaapaashaH .. (16)
Behold there lies the man who sits warming up his body with the fire in front and the sun at the back; at night he curls up the body to keep out of the cold; he eats his beggar's food from the bowl of his hand and sleeps beneath the tree. Still in his heart, he is a wretched puppet at the hands of passions. Stanza attributed to Subodha.
kurute gaNgaasaagaragamanaM vrataparipaalanamathavaa daanam.h . GYaanavihinaH sarvamatena muktiM na bhajati janmashatena .. (17)
One may go to gangasagar(ganes), observe fasts, and give away riches in charity ! Yet, devoid of jnana, nothing can give mukthi even at the end of a hundred births. Stanza attributed to Sureshwaracharya.
sura ma.ndira taru muula nivaasaH shayyaa bhuutala majinaM vaasaH . sarva parigraha bhoga tyaagaH kasya sukhaM na karoti viraagaH .. (18)
Take your residence in a temple or below a tree, wear the deerskin for the dress, and sleep with mother earth as your bed. Give up all attachments and renounce all comforts. Blessed with such vairagya, could any fail to be content ? Stanza attributed to Nityananda.
yogarato vaabhogaratovaa saN^garato vaa saNgaviihinaH . yasya brahmaNi ramate chittaM nandati nandati nandatyeva .. (19)
One may take delight in yoga or bhoga, may have attachment or detachment. But only he whose mind steadily delights in Brahman enjoys bliss, no one else. Stanza attributed to Anandagiri.
bhagavad.h giitaa kiJNchidadhiitaa gaNgaa jalalava kaNikaapiitaa . sakRidapi yena muraari samarchaa kriyate tasya yamena na charchaa .. (20)
Let a man read but a little from Gitaa, drink just a drop of water from the ganges, worship murari (govinda) just once. He then will have no altercation with Yama. Stanza attributed to dR^iDhabhakta.
punarapi jananaM punarapi maraNaM punarapi jananii jaThare shayanam.h . iha saMsaare bahudustaare kRipayaa.apaare paahi muraare .. (21)
Born again, death again, birth again to stay in the mother's womb ! It is indeed hard to cross this boundless ocean of samsara. Oh Murari ! Redeem me through Thy mercy. Stanza attributed to Nityanatha.
rathyaa charpaTa virachita kanthaH puNyaapuNya vivarjita panthaH . yogii yoganiyojita chitto ramate baalonmattavadeva .. (22)
There is no shortage of clothing for a monk so long as there are rags cast off the road. Freed from vice and virtue, onward he wanders. One who lives in communion with God enjoys bliss, pure and uncontaminated, like a child and as someone intoxicated. Stanza attributed to Nityanatha.
kastvaM ko.ahaM kuta aayaataH kaa me jananii ko me taataH . iti paribhaavaya sarvamasaaram.h vishvaM tyaktvaa svapna vichaaram.h .. (23)
Who are you ? Who am I ? From where do I come ? Who is my mother, who is my father ? Ponder thus, look at everything as essenceless and give up the world as an idle dream. Stanza attributed to surendra.
tvayi mayi chaanyatraiko vishhNuH vyarthaM kupyasi mayyasahishhNuH . bhava samachittaH sarvatra tvaM vaaJNchhasyachiraadyadi vishhNutvam.h .. (24)
In me, in you and in everything, none but the same Vishnu dwells. Your anger and impatience is meaningless. If you wish to attain the status of Vishnu soon, have samabhava always. Stanza attributed to medhaatithira.
shatrau mitre putre bandhau maa kuru yatnaM vigrahasandhau . sarvasminnapi pashyaatmaanaM sarvatrotsRija bhedaaGYaanam.h .. (25)
Do not waste your efforts to win the love of or to fight against friend and foe, children and relatives. See yourself in everyone and give up all feelings of duality completely. Stanza attributed to medhaatithira.
kaamaM krodhaM lobhaM mohaM tyaktvaa.atmaanaM bhaavaya ko.aham.h . aatmaGYaana vihiinaa muuDhaaH te pachyante narakaniguuDhaaH .. (26)
Give up lust, anger, infatuation, and greed. Ponder over your real nature. Fools are they who are blind to the Self. Cast into hell they suffer there endlessly. Stanza attributed to bharativamsha.
geyaM giitaa naama sahasraM dhyeyaM shriipati ruupamajasram . neyaM sajjana saNge chittaM deyaM diinajanaaya cha vittam. .. (27)
Regularly recite from the Gita, meditate on Vishnu [thro' Vishnu sahasranama] in your heart, and chant His thousand glories. Take delight to be with the noble and the holy. Distribute your wealth in charity to the poor and the needy. Stanza attributed to sumatira.
sukhataH kriyate raamaabhogaH pashchaaddhanta shariire rogaH . yadyapi loke maraNaM sharaNaM tadapi na muJNchati paapaacharaNam.h .. (28)
He who yields to lust for pleasure leaves his body a prey to disease. Though death brings an end to everything, man does not give up the sinful path.
arthamanarthaM bhaavaya nityaM naastitataH sukhaleshaH satyam. putraadapi dhana bhaajaaM bhiitiH sarvatraishhaa vihiaa riitiH .. (29)
Wealth is not welfare, truly there is no joy in it. Reflect thus at all times. A rich man fears even his own son. This is the way of wealth everywhere.
praaNaayaamaM pratyaahaaraM nityaanitya vivekavichaaram. jaapyasameta samaadhividhaanaM kurvavadhaanaM mahadavadhaanam .. (30)
Regulate the pranas, remain unaffected by external influences and discriminate between the real and the fleeting. Chant the holy name of God and silence the turbulent mind. Perform these with care, with extreme care.
gurucharaNaambuja nirbhara bhakataH saMsaaraadachiraadbhava muktaH . sendriyamaanasa niyamaadevaM drakshyasi nija hR^idayasthaM devam. .. (31)
Oh devotee of the lotus feet of the Guru ! May thou be soon free from Samsara. Through disciplined senses and controlled mind, thou shalt come to experience the Indwelling Lord of your heart !
muuDhaH kashchana vaiyaakaraNo DukRiJNkaraNaadhyayana dhuriNaH . shriimachchhamkara bhagavachchhishhyai bodhita aasichchhodhitakaraNaH .. (32)
Thus was a silly grammarian lost in rules cleansed of his narrow vision and shown the Light by Shankara's apostles.
bhajagovindaM bhajagovindaM govindaM bhajamuuDhamate . naamasmaraNaadanyamupaayaM nahi pashyaamo bhavataraNe .. (33)
Worship Govinda, worship Govinda, worship Govinda, Oh fool ! Other than chanting the Lord's names, there is no other way to cross the life's ocean.