Brahma Sutras

Translated by George Thibaut

Adhyayas:    First    Second    Third    Forth

First Adhyaya

First Pada

1. Then therefore the enquiry into Brahman.

2. (Brahman is that) from which the origin of this (world proceed).

3. Because Scripture is the source (of the knowledge of Brahman).

4. But that (i.e. the authoritativeness of Scripture with regard to Brahman) exists on account of the connection (of Scripture with the highest aim of man).

5. On account of seeing (i.e. thinking) that which is not founded on Scripture (i.e. the Pradhana) is not (what is taught by the texts referring to the origination of the world).

6. If it be said that (the word 'seeing') has a secondary (figurative) meaning; we deny this, on account of the word 'Self' (being applied to the cause of the world).

7. Because release is taught of him who takes his stand on it.

8. And because there is no statement of its having to be set aside.

9. And on account of the contradiction of the initial statement.

10. On account of (the individual soul) going to the Self.

11. On account of the uniformity of view.

12. And because it is directly stated in Scripture.

13. The Self consisting of Bliss (is the highest Self) on account of multiplication.

14. If, on account of its being a word denoting an effect, (anandamaya be said) not (to denote the highest Self); (we say) no, on account of abundance.

15. And because he is declared to be the cause of thatra.

16. And because that (Brahman) which is referred to in the mantra is declared (to be the anandamaya).

17. Not the other, on account of impossibility.

18. And on account of the declaration of difference.

19. And on account of desire, there is no regard to what is inferred (i.e. matter).

20. And Scripture teaches the joining of this (i.e. the individual soul) with that (i.e. bliss) in that (i.e. the anandamaya).

21. The one within (the sun and the eye); on account of his qualities being declared.

22. And on account of the declaration of difference (the highest Self is) other (than the individual souls of the sun, &c.).

23. Ether (is Brahman), on account of the characteristic marks.

24. For the same reason breath (is Brahman).

25. The light (is Brahman), on account of the mention of feet.

26. If it be objected that (Brahman is) not (denoted) on account of the metre being denoted; (we reply) not so, because thus the direction of the mind (on Brahman) is declared; for thus it is seen.

27. And thus also, because (thus only) the designation of the beings, and so on, being the (four) feet is possible.

28. If it be said that (Brahman is) not (recognised) on account of the difference of designation; (we say) not so, on account of there being no contradiction in either (designation).

29. Prana is Brahman, on account of connexion.

30. If it be said that (Brahman is) not (denoted) on account of the speaker denoting himself; (we say, not so), because the multitude of connexions with the inner Self (is possible only) in that (speaker if viewed as Brahman).

31. The instruction (given by Indra about himself) (is possible) through insight based on Scripture, as in the case of Vamadeva.

32. If it be said (that Brahman is not meant) on account of characteristic marks of the individual soul and the chief vital air; we say no, on account of the threefoldness of meditation; on account of (such threefold meditation) being met (in other texts also); and on account of (such threefold meditation) being appropriate here (also).

Second Pada

1. Everywhere; because there is taught what is known.

2. And because the qualities meant to be stated are possible (in Brahman).

3. But, on account of impossibility, not the embodied soul.

4. And because there is (separate) denotation of the object and the agent.

5. On account of the difference of words.

6. And on account of Smriti.

7. Should it be said that (the passage does) not (refer to Brahman) on account of the smallness of the abode, and on account of the denotation of that (viz. minuteness of the being meditated on); we say no, because (Brahman) has thus to be meditated upon, and because (in the same passage) it is said to be like ether.

8. Should it be said that there is attainment of fruition (of pleasure and pain); we reply, not so, on account of difference.

9. The eater (is the highest Self) on account of there being taken all that is movable and immovable.

10. And on account of the topic of the whole section.

11. The 'two entered into the cave' are the two Selfs; on account of this being seen.

12. And on account of distinctive qualities.

13. (The Person) within the eye (is the highest Self) on account of suitability.

14. And on account of the statement as to abode, and so on.

15. And on account of the text referring only to what is characterised by pleasure.

16. For that very reason that (ether) is Brahman.

17. And on account of the statement of the way of him who has heard the Upanishads.

18. Not any other, on account of non-permanency of abode, and of impossibility.

19. The internal Ruler (referred to) in the clauses with respect to the gods, with respect to the worlds, &c. (is the highest Self), because the attributes of that are designated.

20. And not that which Smriti assumes, on account of the declaration of qualities not belonging to that; nor the embodied one.

21. For both also speak of it as something different.

22. That which possesses the qualities of invisibility, &c., on account of the declaration of attributes.

23. Not the two others, on account of distinction and statement of difference.

24. And on account of the description of its form.

25. Vaisvanara (is the highest Self), on account of the distinctions qualifying the common term.

26. That which the text refers to is an inferential mark--thus.

27. Should it be said that it is not so, on account of the word, &c., and on account of the abiding within; we say, no; on account of meditation being taught thus, on account of impossibility; and because they read of him as person.

28. For the same reasons not the divinity and the element.

29. Gaimini thinks that there is no objection to (the word 'Agni') directly (denoting the highest Self).

30. On account of definiteness; thus ¬smarathya opines.

31. On account of meditation, Badari thinks.

32. On account of imaginative identification, thus Gaimini thinks; for thus the text declares.

33. Moreover, they record him in that.

Third Pada

1. The abode of heaven, earth, &c. (is the highest Self), on account of terms which are its own.

2. And on account of its being declared that to which the released have to resort.

3. Not that which is inferred, on account of the absence of terms denoting it, and (so also not) the bearer of the Pranas (i. e. the individual soul).

4. On account of the declaration of difference.

5. On account of the subject-matter.

6. And on account of abiding and eating.

7. The bhuman (is the highest Self), as the instruction about it is additional to that about serenity.

8. And on account of the suitability of the attributes.

9. The Imperishable (is Brahman), on account of its supporting that which is the end of ether.

10. And this (supporting) (springs) from command.

11. And on account of the exclusion of (what is of) another nature (than Brahman).

12. On account of his being designated as the object of seeing, he (i.e. the highest Self) (is that object).

13. The small (ether) (is Brahman), on account of the subsequent (arguments).

14. On account of the going and of the word; for thus it is seen; and (there is) an inferential sign.

15. And on account of there being observed in that (small ether), supporting which is a greatness of that (i. e. Brahman).

16. And on account of the settled meaning.

17. If it be said that on account of reference to the other one he is meant; we say no, on account of impossibility.

18. Should it be said that from a subsequent passage (it appears that the individual Soul is meant); rather (the soul) in so far as its true nature has become manifest.

19. And the reference has a different meaning.

20. If it be said, owing to the scriptural declaration of smallness; that has been explained.

21. And on account of the imitation of that.

22. The same is declared by Smriti also.

23. On account of the term, the one measured.

24. But with reference to the heart, men being qualified.

25. Also beings above them (i.e. men), Badarayana thinks, on account of possibility.

26. If it be said that there results a contradiction to work; we deny this, on account of the observation of the assumption of several (bodies).

27. If it be said (that a contradiction will result) with regard to words; we say no, since beings originate from them (as appears) from perception and inference.

28. And for this very reason eternity (of the Veda).

29. And on account of the equality of names and forms there is no contradiction, even in the renovation (of the world); as appears from--Sruti and Smriti.

30. On account of the impossibility (of qualification for the madhuvidya, &c.) (Gaimini maintains the non-qualification (of gods, &c.).

31. And on account of (meditating on the part of the gods) being in the Light.

33. (That) grief of him (arose), this is intimated by his (Ganasruti's) resorting to him (Raikva) on hearing a disrespectful speech about himself.

34. And on account of (Ganasruti ) kshattriya-hood being understood.

35. On account of the inferential sign further on, together with Kaitraratha.

36. On account of the reference to ceremonial purifications, and on account of the declaration of their absence.

37. And on account of the procedure, on the ascertainment of the non-being of that.

38. And on account of the prohibition of hearing, studying, and performance of (Vedic) matter.

39. And on account of Smriti.

40. On account of the trembling.

41. On account of light being seen (declared in the text).

42. The ether, on account of the designation of something different, and so on.

43. On account of difference in deep sleep and departing.

44. And on account of such words as Lord..

Fourth Pada

1. If it be said that some (mention) that which rests on Inference; we deny this because (the form) refers to what is contained in the simile of the body; and (this the text) shows.

2. But the subtle (body), on account of its capability.

3. (Matter in its subtle state) subserves an end, on account of its dependence on him (viz. the Supreme Person).

4. And on account of there being no statement of its being an object of knowledge.

5. Should it be said that (the text) declares (it); we say, not so; for the intelligent Self (is meant), on account of subject-matter.

6. And of three only there is this mention and question.

7. And as in the case of the 'Great.'

8. On account of there being no special characteristic; as in the case of the cup.

9. But she begins with light; for thus some read in their text.

10. And on account of the teaching of formation (i.e. creation) there is no contradiction; as in the case of the honey.

11. Not from the mention of the number even, on account of the diversity and of the excess.

12. The breath, and so on, on the ground of the complementary passage.

13. By light, food not being (mentioned in the text) of some.

14. And on account of (Brahman) as described being declared to be the cause with regard to Ether, and so on.

15. From connexion.

16. Because it denotes the world.

17. Should it be said that this is not so on account of the inferential marks of the individual soul and the chief vital air; we reply that this has been explained before.

18. But Gaimini thinks that it has another purport, on account of the question and answer; and thus some also.

19. On account of the connected meaning of the sentences.

20. (It is) a mark indicating that the promissory statement is proved; thus ¬smarathya thinks.

21. Because (the soul) when it will depart is such; thus Audulomi thinks.

22. On account of (Brahman's) abiding (within the individual soul); thus Kasakritsna (holds).

23. (Brahman is) the material cause on account of this not being in conflict with the promissory statements and the illustrative instances.

24. And on account of the statement of reflection.

25. And on account of both being directly declared.

26. On account of (the Self) making itself.

27. Owing to modification.

28. And because it is called the womb.

29. Herewith all (texts) are explained, explained.

Go to Second Adhyaya >>